According to the requirements of international maritime organization model course 7.03, electronic navigation systems are essential for project pilots. Global positioning system (GPS) is currently the most widely used electronic navigation equipment. However, because of the frequent blockages of GPS signals in complex environments, obtaining a precise and real-time position is difficult. To satisfy the requirement of effective and stable positioning of ship berthing and unberthing, another independent navigation system, inertial navigation system (INS), was adopted. In this study, we developed a 2-dimension (2D) GPS/INS-integrated system by using the constraint of a ship moving on a plane. If GPS signals are unavailable, virtual measurement is adopted to obtain some information on the ship position by considering ship constraints. A loose coupled approach using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was proposed to obtain integrated solutions. The simulation and dynamic experimental results indicated that the 2D integrated system is adequate for ship navigation, and that the proposed methodology substantially enhances the performance of navigation systems.
Chang, Tsai-Hsin and Hou, Jian-Qun
"SHIP ROUTING DETERMINATION BY VIRTUAL MEASUREMENTS OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM,"
Journal of Marine Science and Technology: Vol. 28:
4, Article 7.
Available at: https://jmstt.ntou.edu.tw/journal/vol28/iss4/7