Aluminum (Al) is one of the most abundant elements on the earth’s crust and is used in various industrial applications. However, Al is known to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Taurine is a free amino acid presents at high concentrations in the brain and is crucial for neuron development. Here, the protective effects of taurine against Al-induced neurotoxicity were investigated. Al, at a concentration of 600 M, induced apoptosis of and cell cycle arrest in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Additionally, Al induced a 55% increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species and inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential up to 60%. Al treatment also stimulated caspase 9 activities and Grp78 production. Furthermore, the expressions of neurotrophic genes including NDRG-4, BDNF and SIRT1 were inhibited. Hence this study revealed that taurine attenuates oxidative stress, ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequently protects against Al-induced cytotoxicity and neuronal apoptosis.

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