Coastal areas are the most vulnerable areas to sea level fluctuations. Such areas comprise approximately 4% of South Korea's total land; therefore, monitoring these fluctuations is crucial. The present study determined the vertical datum level using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Unlike traditional sea level measurements, which are performed using fixed-type gauge observations, a GNSS has an accuracy of a few millimetres and no spatiotemporal constraints. For this purpose, a set of buoys containing GNSS devices was installed in coastal waters, and observations were performed for more than 8 h. The processed GNSS buoy data were compared with tidal measurement data to determine their accuracy. The study results indicated that it is possible to efficiently obtain height information in coastal areas that are far from land using GNSS buoys. Furthermore, the limitations of traditional methods regarding long-term continuous observations can be overcome.

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