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Abstract

An underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) is a promising method for surveillance or monitoring underwater environments. This network may be most applicable as a disaster alarm system against tsunamis and red tides. Sensor measurement data and sensor location information from these networks are important elements for the UASN system. However, global positioning system (GPS) information is not yet available because the electromagnetic signal has high attenuation under the water. Thus, new methods for sensor localization are of great importance to UASN systems. In this paper, an event-driven localization scheme using the constant arrival time surface (ELSUCATS) is proposed to achieve a more accurate sensor localization, which is an essential element in a warning system used to detect seasonal events, for example, a red tide or a tsunami. By considering the East Sea of South Korea where the red tides occur frequently in the summer, an underwater configuration (1000 m  1000 m  600 m) and sound speed profiles (SSPs) that depend on depth were modelled for testing. Our proposed scheme shows that even for a noisy and large depth variation of SSP, the localization success ratio is still over 94% on average, and the mean error ratio is less than 0.0011. This demonstrates that our scheme has outperformed the conventional reverse localization scheme (RLS) in accuracy and is strongly robust to measurement errors and sound speed variation

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