Although there have been lots studies about vehicular maneuvers on land or sea, maneuvers within a small area that require direction changes have rarely been discussed. Many reports on the arrival or departure of ships from ports have revealed more about what are safe and effective turning maneuvers within a narrow area. Convenient navigation systems for ship maneuvering should allow quick avoidance of obstacle to find the shortest distance in the whole seaway is important. This study proposes a review model that will satisfy optimal turning maneuvering anywhere and be applicable to any type of ship. However, the water-based environment is more complex and there are many factors that will affect the formula. By using a nonlinear unified state-space model to discuss another model we can divide and conquer the problem. In recent studies some categories have been evaluated to determine where the main attention should be directed. In this review study we look at how to construct the optimal turning maneuver within a limited sea area.

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