This study evaluated the effects of 10%-30% mulberry lees addition on the dough mixing characteristics and the quality of mulberry toast. Farinogram shows the addition of 30% mulberry lees had the shortest departure time and weakest gluten strength. Peak viscosity, pasting temperature and final viscosity of Rapid Visco Analyser pasting profiles decreased as the addition of mulberry lees increase. Dough with 10% and 20% lees addition had a similar dough expansion rate to that of the control. However, the fermentation rate of the dough with 30% mulberry lees was obviously much slower. The ice-melting onset temperature, peak temperature and enthalpy of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) decrease with the addition of mulberry lees. A scanning electron microscopy was used to study changes in structure of bread dough that had added mulberry lees and fermented for 240 minutes. Starch granules of the control dough appeared to be coated within a compact gluten matrix that retained its integrity after final proof. When the dough was added with 30% mulberry lees, the appearance of the dough altered from a loose and discontinuous protein matrix to an un-solidified and open structure after final proof. Mulberry lees could be added to bread dough at a level of less than 20% without significant reducing its bread volume and quality.

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