The objective of this paper is to study the contributions of multiple scattering and compare it with those of the single scattering from randomly rough surfaces. The existing Kirchhoff, small perturbation and IEM scattering model cannot be used to predict the multiple scattering along the azimuth angle. In this paper we modify the IEM model by adding the phase terms in Green’s function and its derivative for multiple scattering. The function of phase term is significant to investigate the contribution of multiple scattering in the upward and downward directions. The contribution by multiple scattering is mainly based on the normalized surface standard deviation and the surface rms slope. We compare the model prediction with the experimental measurements for bistatic scattering along the azimuth angle. From the comparisons of model prediction with the measured data we found the contribution of multiple scattering is significant in the scattering directions of backward and forward. The origin IEM model cannot be used to predict the multiple scattering, but the modified model prediction demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data from the comparisons.
Hsieh, Chin-Yuan and Chang, Shun-Hsyung
"Single and Multiple Surface Scatterings from Rough Surfaces,"
Journal of Marine Science and Technology: Vol. 12:
4, Article 12.
Available at: https://jmstt.ntou.edu.tw/journal/vol12/iss4/12