This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of nonlinear surface-wave propagation over a sloping bed. First, a second-order analytical solution for nonlinear surface-wave propagation over a sloping bed is derived using a perturbation method for the bottom slope  and the wave steepness  in an Eulerian system. Then, by transforming the flow field solution from an Eulerian system into a Lagrangian system, more accurate wave profiles are determined. New theoretical breaker characteristics and breaker impulses are derived using the kinematic stability parameter. Subsequently, a series of experiments to measure breaker characteristics and the breaker impulse are conducted in a wave tank. The theoretical solutions are compared with both the present experimental data and previously published experimental results. The results reveal that the analytical solution can reasonably describe the wave breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a new theoretical solution for the breaker characteristics and impulses is provided, which is proven to be a useful approach for follow-up studies to predict breaker characteristics and impulses.

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